Introduction to PEM POCUS

"Manual of Ultrasound for Resource-Limited Settings". The Partners in Health. First Edition, 2011

Ultrasound Physics & Knobology
- A (hopefully) less painful take on Physics and Knobology for the point-of-care ultrasound clinician. Enjoy!

Back to Basics - Transducer Manipulation 
- How to slide, tilt, rock and rotate your way to a decent view of whatever you need to see.


Miller, C. R., Ultrasound in the Assessment of the Acute Abdomen in Children: Its advantages and Its Limitations. Ultrasound Clin (2007) 525-540 doi:10.1016/j.cult.2007.08.010

Munden, M. M., Hill, J. G., Ultrasound of the Acute Abdomen in Children. Ultrasound Clin 5 (2010) 112-135. doi:10.1016/j.cult/2009.11.016

POCUS Focused Abdomen - Collection of Images 
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children


Fox, J. C. et al., Prospective evaluation of emergency physician performed bedside ultrasound to detect acute appendicitis. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 2008, 15:80–85

Parks, N. A., and Schroeppel T. J., Update on Imaging for Acute Appendicitis. Surg Clin N Am 91 (2011) 141–154. doi:10.1016/j.suc.2010.10.017

Ramarajan et al., An Interdisciplinary Initiative to Reduce Radiation Exposure: Evaluation of Appendicitis in a Pediatric Emergency Department With Clinical Assessment Supported by a Staged Ultrasound and Computed Tomography Pathway. Acad Emerg Med November 2009, Vol. 16, No. 1  doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00511.x

Sivitz, A. B., Cohen, S. G., Tejani, C., Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis by Pediatric Emergency Physician Sonography. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2014 (Article in Press)

Tulin-Silver, S. et al., The challenging ultrasound diagnosis of perforated appendicitis in children: constellations of sonographic findings improve specificity. Pediatr Radiol 4 November 2014 DOI 10.1007/s00247-014-3232-5

Appendicitis Remix - "In this episode we do something a little different than normal. Instead of giving you a “great save” story, we’re gonna talk about how it can go wrong. What we don’t want to do is scare you away from doing this exam. However, it’s important to inject some humility occasionally, especially when we’re talking about an advanced scan." -
Episode 02: Appendicitis - "Seriously, you’re still CT’ing every RLQ pain? Get with the program and learn why and how to ultrasound for appendicitis. If this isn’t a skill you have, why not? Maybe you don’t see patients with abdominal pain, but if you do, check out this podcast" -


Halm, B. M., and Boychuk, R. B. Diagnosis of intussusception using point-of-care ultrasound in the pediatric ED: A case report. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011)29, 354.e1–354.e3. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2010.03.016 

Lam, S. H. F., Wise, A., and Yenter, C. Emergency bedside ultrasound for the diagnosis of pediatric intussusception: a retrospective review. World J Emerg Med 2014;5(4):255–258DOI: 10.5847/wjem.j.issn.1920–8642.2014.04.002

Riera, A., et al. Diagnosis of Intussusception by Physician Novice Sonographers inthe Emergency Department. American College of Emergency Physicians 2012 doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.02.007

Bedside Ultrasound Diagnosis of Pediatric Intussusception
- Samuel Lam, Advocate Christ Medical Center

Intussusception Part 1 - "You’ve got a little bugger with belly pain and they may have intussusception…..or they could just have gastro. How to know? Well, this isn’t the xray podcast. Of course, you’re going to ultrasound them. Or if you’re not, watch this and hopefully you will afterwards." -
Intussusception Part 2 - "Have you been scanning some little bellies for turducken? We sure hope so. If you’ve waiting to hear from the man, Andy Sloas, before diving in, then the wait’s over. Here he is for Intussusception Part 2. He does this all the time and is a scanning maniac. Like Russ, he knows his stuff." -

Pyloric Stenosis

Cohen, H. L., Greene, E. B., Boulden, T. P. The Vomiting Neonate or Young Infant. Ultrasound Clin 5 (2010) 97–112doi:10.1016/j.cult.2009.11.017

Sivitz, A. B., Tejani, C., Cohen, S. G. Evaluation of Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis by Pediatric Emergency Physician Sonography. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine 2013. doi: 10.1111/acem.12163

Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)

Gallahan, W. C., and Conway, J. D. Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Polyps. Gastroenterol Clin N Am 39 (2010) 359–367 doi:10.1016/j.gtc.2010.02.001

Krishnan, M., and Middleton, W. D. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Right Upper Quadrant Pain in Emergency Departments. Ultrasound Clin 6 (2011) 149–161 doi:10.1016/j.cult.2011.03.004

Summers, S. M. et al. A Prospective Evaluation of Emergency Department BedsideUltrasonography for the Detection of Acute Cholecystitis. American College of Emergency Physicians 2010. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2010.01.014

Airway Confirmation

Abbasi, S. et al. Direct ultrasound methods: a confirmatory technique for proper endotracheal intubation in the emergency department. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 2014

Chou EH, et al. Ultrasonography for confirmation of endotracheal tube placement: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation (2015)

Kerrey, B. T. et al. A Prospective Comparison of Diaphragmatic Ultrasound and Chest Radiography to Determine Endotracheal Tube Position in a Pediatric Emergency Department. PEDIATRICS Volume 123, Number 6, June 2009

Marciniak, B. et al. Airway Management in Children: Ultrasonography Assessment of Tracheal Intubation in Real Time? International Anesthesia Research Society, February 2009 Vol. 108, No. 2 DOI: 10.1213/ane.0b013e31819240f5

Sim, S. et al. Ultrasonographic lung sliding sign in confirming proper endotracheal intubation during emergency Intubation. Resuscitation 83 (2012) 307–312

Tessaro, M. O., et al. Tracheal rapid ultrasound saline test (T.R.U.S.T.) for confirming correct endotracheal tube depth in children. Resuscitation (2014)

Quit Mainstemming Kids: Airway Ultrasound - "We know you’re awesome and you never mainstem intubate children or adults. Of course, the literature says even the best peds EM trained docs mainstem about 30% of the time, but you’re best of the best. However, if others are doing this, you should at least watch this so you can “help them”……right? Enjoy…" -


Aichinger, G. et al. Cardiac Movement Identified on Prehospital Echocardiography Predicts Outcome in Cardiac Arrest Patients. PREHOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE 2012;16:251–255

Doniger, S. J. Bedside emergency cardiac ultrasound in children. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock Jul - Sep 2010 I 3:3 I . DOI: 10.4103/0974-2700.66535

Longjohn, M. and Pershad, J. Point-of-Care Echocardiography by Pediatric Emergency Physicians. POCE BY PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY PHYSICIANS VOL. 12, NO. 1

Longjohn, M., Wan, J., and Pershad, J. Point-of-Care Echocardiography by Pediatric Emergency Physicians. Pediatric Emergency Care August 2011. Volume 27, Number 8

Moore, C. Current Issues with Emergency Cardiac Ultrasound Probe and Image Conventions. ACAD EMERG MED March 2008, Vol. 15, No. 3. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00052.x

Emergency Echo Lecture
- Arun Nagdev, Highland General Hospital


Fox, J. C. et al. Test Characteristics of Focused Assessment of Sonography for Trauma for Clinically Significant Abdominal Free Fluid in Pediatric Blunt Abdominal Trauma. ACAD EMERG MED May 2011, Vol. 18, No. 5

Friedman, L. M., and Tsung, J. W. Extending the Focused Assessment With Sonography for Trauma Examination in Children. Elsevier Inc. 2011  VOL. 12, NO. 1

Patel, N. Y., and Riherd, J. M. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma: Methods, Accuracy, and Indications. Surg Clin N Am 91 (2011) 195–207 doi:10.1016/j.suc.2010.10.008

FAST - How To Lecture
- Vicki Noble, Massachusetts General Hospital

POCUS Basic FAST Lecture
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children

Ultrasound for Anterior Pneumothorax
- Arun Nagdev, Highland General Hospital

POCUS E-FAST - Collection of Images
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children

Gyne: First Trimester Preganancy

Bronstein, M. E. et al. A Meta-Analysis of B-Mode Ultrasound, Doppler Ultrasound, and Computed Tomography to Diagnose Pediatric Ovarian Torsion. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2015;25:82–86.

Laurich, V. M., and Tsung, J. W. Point-of-Care First Trimester Pelvic Ultrasonography for the Pediatric Emergency Physician. Elsevier Inc. 2011. VOL. 12, NO. 1

Sadro, C., Bittle, M., and O'Connel, K. Imaging the Pregnant Trauma Patient. Ultrasound Clin 6 (2011) 97–103 doi:10.1016/j.cult.2010.11.002

Sheth, S. Acute Pelvic Pain in Women: Ultrasonography Still Reigns. Ultrasound Clin 6 (2011) 163–176 doi:10.1016/j.cult.2011.03.006

Stein, J. C. et al. Emergency Physician Ultrasonography for Evaluating Patients at Risk for Ectopic Pregnancy: A Meta-Analysis. Annals of Emergency Medicine December 2010 Volume 56, No. 6 

Essential 1st Trimester Pelvic Ultrasound 
- Heidi Kimberly shows you how to use Transabdominal ultrasound to assess for intrauterine pregnancy (IUP)


Chen, L. et al. Use of Bedside Ultrasound to Assess Degree of Dehydration in Children With Gastroenteritis. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:1042–1047. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.00873.x

Kuthuria, N. et al. The Baseline Diameter of the Inferior Vena Cava Measured by Sonography Increases With Age in Normovolemic Children. J Ultrasound Med 2015; 34:1091–1096. doi:10.7863/ultra.34.6.1091

Levine, A. C. et al. Ultrasound Assessment of Severe Dehydration in Children With Diarrhea and Vomiting. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:1035–1041. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.00830.x

POCUS Inferior Vena Cava - Collection of Images
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children


Esposito, S. et al. Performance of lung ultrasonography in children with community-acquired pneumonia. Esposito et al. Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2014, 40:37

Kurian, J. et al. Comparison of Ultrasound and CT in the Evaluation of Pneumonia Complicated by Parapneumonic Effusion in Children. December 2009 AJR 193:1648–1654 DOI:10.2214/AJR.09.2791

Lichtenstein, D. A. Lung ultrasound in the critically ill. Annals of Intensive Care 2014, 4:1

Lichtenstein, D. A. and Meziere G. A. Relevance of Lung Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Failure. Chest 2008;134;117-125 DOI 10.1378/chest.07-2800

Nazerian P. et al, Accuracy of lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of consolidations when compared to chest computed tomography, Am J Emerg Med (2015) doi.o,rg/10.1016/j.ajem.2015.01.035

Pereda, M. A. et al. Lung Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Children: A Meta-analysis. PEDIATRICS 2015 (ISSN Numbers: Print, 0031-4005; Online, 1098-4275). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-2833

Raja, A. S. and Jacobus, C. H. How Accurate Is Ultrasonography for Excluding Pneumothorax? Annals of Emergency Medicine 2012

Shah, V. P. et al. Prospective Evaluation of Point-of-Care Ultrasonography for the Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Children and Young Adults. JAMA PEDIATR FEB 2013 VOL 167 (NO. 2)

Volpicelli, G. et al. International evidence-based recommendations for point-of-care lung ultrasound. Intensive Care Med (2012) 38:577–591 DOI 10.1007/s00134-012-2513-4

Volpicelli, G. Lung Sonography. J Ultrasound Med 2013; 32:165–171

Wilkerson, R. G. and Stone, M. B. Sensitivity of Bedside Ultrasound and Supine Anteroposterior Chest Radiographs for the Identification of Pneumothorax After Blunt Trauma. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:11–17. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00628.x

POCUS Focused Lung Lecture
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children

POCUS Focused Lung - Collection of Images
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children

Musculoskeletal (MSK)

Cross, K. P. Bedside Ultrasound for Pediatric Long Bone Fractures.  Elsevier Inc. 2011. VOL. 12, NO. 1

Dubrovsky, A. S. et al. Accuracy of Ultrasonography for Determining Successful Realignment of Pediatric Forearm Fractures. Annals of Emergency Medicine (2014).

Fananapazir, G. and Allison, S. J. Common Applications of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in the Emergency Department. Ultrasound Clin 6 (2011) 215–226 doi:10.1016/j.cult.2011.03.001

Halberg, M. J. et al. Case Report: Bedside ultrasound for verification of shoulder reduction. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 27, 134.e5–134.e6

Neri, E. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for hand bony fractures in paediatric patients. Arch. Dis. Child. June 2014 doi:10.1136/archdischild-2013-305678

Rabiner, J. E. et al. Accuracy of Point-of-Care Ultrasonography for Diagnosis of Elbow Fractures in Children. Annals of Emergency Medicine (2012).

Rabiner, J. E. Ultrasound Findings of the Elbow Posterior Fat Pad in Children With Radial Head Subluxation. Pediatric Emergency Care May 2015, Volume 31, Number 5

Vieira, R. L. and Levy, J. A. Bedside Ultrasonography to Identify Hip Effusions in Pediatric Patients. Annals of Emergency Medicine March 2010 Volume 55, No. 3. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2009.06.527

Waterbrook, A.L. et al. The accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound to diagnose long bone fractures in the ED Am J Emerg Med (2013),


Ahuja, A. T. and Ying, M. Sonographic Evaluation of Cervical Lymph Nodes. AJR 2005; 184:1691–1699

Chan, J. M. et al. Ultrasonography of Abnormal Neck Lymph Nodes. Ultrasound Quarterly March 2007 Volume 23, Number 1

Wagner, J. M. and Lamprich, B. K. Ultrasonography of Lumps and Bumps. Ultrasound Clin 9 (2014) 373–390.

X.S. Fu et al. Sonographic appearance of cervical lymphadenopathy due to infectious mononucleosis in children and young adults. Clinical Radiology 69 (2014) 239-245.

Nerve Blocks

Barrington, M. J. and Kluger, R. Ultrasound Guidance Reduces the Risk of Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity Following Peripheral Nerve Blockade. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2013;38: 289–299 DOI: 10.1097/AAP.0b013e318292669b

Fischer, J. et al. Case Report: Ultrasound-guided distal popliteal sciatic nerve block for ED anesthesia. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011) 29, 697.e3–697.e5. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2010.06.015

Frenkel, O. et al. Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Nerve Block for Pain Control in an Infant With a Femur Fracture Due to Nonaccidental Trauma. Pediatr Emer Care 2012;28: 183-184

Frenkel, O. et al. Ultrasound-Guided Forearm Nerve Blocks in Kids: A Novel Method for Pain Control in the Treatment of Hand-Injured Pediatric Patients in the Emergency Department. Pediatr Emer Care 2015;31: 00–00

Geffen, G. van, et al. Ultrasound-guided proximal and distal sciatic nerve blocks in children. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia (2010) 22, 241–245 doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2009.07.009

Liebmann, O. et al. Feasibility of Forearm Ultrasonography-Guided Nerve Blocks of the Radial, Ulnar, and Median Nerves for Hand Procedures in the Emergency Department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, November 2006, Volume 48, No. 5: 558-562.  doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2006.04.014

Neal, J. M. et al. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia: Essentials of Our Current Understanding, 2008. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2009;34: 134-170. DOI: 10.1097/AAP.0b013e31819624eb

Stone, M. B. et al. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block for the treatment of upper extremity fractures, dislocations, and abscesses in the ED. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007) 25, 472 – 475. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2006.08.019

Stone, M. B. et al. Case Report: Ultrasound-guided intercostal nerve block for traumatic pneumothorax requiring tube thoracostomy. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2011) 29, 697.e1–697.e2. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2010.06.014

Tsui, B. C. H. and Suresh, S. Ultrasound Imaging for Regional Anesthesia in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: A Review of Current Literature and Its Application in the Practice of Extremity and Trunk Blocks. Anesthesiology 2010; 112:473–92

Ultrasound Guided Nerve Blocks in Emergency Care
- Mike Stone, Highland General Hospital 
October 16th 2011 Moscone Center San Francisco CA

Distal Sciatic Nerve Block
- Mike Stone, Highland General Hospital
A quick intro to scanning and planning your approach to a popliteal sciatic nerve block

Ulnar Nerve Block
- Mike Stone, Highland General Hospital
A 2 minute intro to scanning and planning your approach to an ulnar nerve block

Radial Nerve Block
- Mike Stone, Highland General Hospital
A 2 minute intro to scanning and planning your approach to a radial nerve block

Median Nerve Block
- Mike Stone, Highland General Hospital
A 2 minute intro to scanning and planning your approach to a median nerve block


Harries, A. et al. Ultrasound assessment of extraocular movements and pupillary light reflex in ocular trauma. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) (Article in Press). doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2009.06.026

Kalantari H, et al, Correlation of optic nerve sheet diameter measurements by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.Am J Emerg Med (2013),

Le, A. et al. Bedside Sonographic Measurement of Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter as a Predictor of Increased Intracranial Pressure in Children. Annals of Emergency Medicine June 2009, Volume 53, No. 6. 785-791 doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.11.025

Leo, M. and Carmody, K. Sonography Assessment of Acute Ocular Pathology. Ultrasound Clin 6 (2011) 227–234. doi:10.1016/j.cult.2011.03.002

Sharma, S. Vitreoretinal Disorders. Ultrasound Clin 3 (2008) 217–228. doi:10.1016/j.cult.2008.04.003

Shinar, Z. et al. Use of Ocular Ultrasound for the evaluation of retinal detachment. The Journal of Emergency Medicine 2011, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 53–57

Stone, M. B. Case Report: Ultrasound diagnosis of papilledema and increased intracranial pressure in pseudotumor cerebri. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2009) 27, 376.e1–376.e2. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2008.08.007

Teismann, N. et al. Point-of-care Ocular Ultrasound to Detect Optic Disc Swelling. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE September 2013, Vol. 20, No. 9. doi: 10.1111/acem.12206

POCUS Focused Ocular - Collection of Images
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children


Moore, C. Ultrasound-Guided Procedures in Emergency Medicine. Ultrasound Clin 6 (2011) 277–289 doi:10.1016/j.cult.2011.03.005

Werner, H. and Levy, J. Procedural Applications of Bedside Emergency Ultrasound. Elsevier 2011. Vol. 12, No. 1. 43-52

Ultrasound Guided LP - The Essentials
A quick video demonstrating the technique for finding the relevant landmarks in an ultrasound guided lumbar puncture

Another WIN for Ultrasound: the Wire In Needle technique for CVC Placement
Details on the technique coming soon at

Bladder Volume (BV)

Baumann, B. M. et al. Volumetric bladder ultrasound performed by trained nurses increases catheterization success in pediatric patients. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2008) 26, 18 – 23. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2007.03.020

Chen, L. et al. Utility of Bedside Bladder Ultrasound Before Urethral Catheterization in Young Children. Pediatrics 2005;115;108 DOI: 10.1542/peds.2004-0738

Milling Jr, T. J. et al. Use of Ultrasonography to Identify Infants for Whom Urinary Catheterization Will Be Unsuccessful Because of Insufficient Urine Volume: Validation of the Urinary Bladder Index. Annals of Emergency Medicine May 2005, Vol. 45, No. 5, 510-513.  doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2004.11.010

Witt, M. et al. Bladder Ultrasound Increases Catheterization Success in Pediatric Patients. ACAD EMERG MED April 2005, Vol. 12, No. 4. doi:10.1197/j.aem.2004.11.023

Ultrasound Guided Central Venous Cannulation Tutorial
- Arun Nagdev, Highland General Hospital

Intraosseous (IO)

Stone, M. B. et al. Ultrasonographic Confirmation of Intraosseous Needle Placement in an Adult Unembalmed Cadaver Model. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49:515-519. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2006.11.009

peripheral intravenous line (PIV)

Doniger, S. J. et al. Randomized Controlled Trial of Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Placement Versus Traditional Techniques in Difficult-Access Pediatric Patients. Pediatr Emer Care 2009;25: 154-159. 

Heinrichs, J. et al. Ultrasonographically Guided Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation of Children and Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2013;61:444-454

Panebianco, N. L. et al. What You See (Sonographically) Is What You Get: Vein and Patient Characteristics Associated With Successful Ultrasound-guided Peripheral Intravenous Placement in Patients With Difficult Access. ACAD EMERG MED December 2009, Vol. 16, No. 12. 1298-1303. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00520.x


Ray, A. A. et al. Limitations to Ultrasound in the Detection and Measurement of Urinary Tract Calculi. Urology 2010. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2009.12.015

Noble, V. E. and Brown, D. F. M. Renal ultrasound. Emerg Med Clin N Am 22 (2004) 641–659. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2004.04.014

Smith-Bindman, R. et al. Ultrasonography versus Computed Tomography for Suspected Nephrolithiasis. N Engl J Med 2014;371:1100-10.DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1404446

Smith, R. J. and Horrow, M. M. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Acute Urinary Tract and Male Genitourinary Pathology. Ultrasound Clin 6 (2011) 195–213 doi:10.1016/j.cult.2011.03.007


Byrne, M. W. et al. Ultrasound in the Critically Ill. Ultrasound Clin 6 (2011) 235–259 doi:10.1016/j.cult.2011.03.003

Manson, W. and Hafez, N. M. The Rapid Assessment of Dyspnea with Ultrasound: RADiUS.  Ultrasound Clin 6 (2011) 261–276 doi:10.1016/j.cult.2011.03.010

Perera, P. et al. The RUSH Exam: Rapid Ultrasound in SHock in the Evaluation of the Critically lll. Emerg Med Clin N Am 28 (2010) 29–56 doi:10.1016/j.emc.2009.09.010

Yanagawa, Y. et al. Hypovolemic Shock Evaluated by Sonographic Measurement of the Inferior Vena Cava During Resuscitation in Trauma Patients. The Journal of TRAUMA Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 2007, Vol. 63, No. 6, 1245-1248. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318068d72b

POCUS Resuscitation - Collection of Images
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children


Rabiner, J. E. et al. Accuracy of Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Diagnosis of Skull Fractures in Children. Pediatrics; originally published online May 20, 2013, Volume 131, Number 6; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-3921

Ramirez-Schrempp, D. et al. Bedside Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Skull Fractures in the Pediatric Emergency Department. Pediatr Emer Care 2011;27: 312-314

Riera, A. and Chen, L. Ultrasound Evaluation of Skull Fractures in Children: A Feasibility Study. Pediatr Emer Care 2012;28: 420-425

POCUS Focused Skull - Collection of Images
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children

Soft Tissue

Iverson, K. et al. The effect of bedside ultrasound on diagnosis and management of soft tissue infections in a pediatric ED. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2012) 30, 1347–1351. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2011.09.020

Ramirez-Schrempp, D. et al. Ultrasound Soft Tissue Applications in the Pediatric Emergency Department: To drain or not to drain? Pediatr Emer Care 2009;25: 44-48

Sivitz, A. B. Effect of Bedside Ultrasound on Management of Pediatric Soft Tissue Infection. The Journal of Emergency Medicine 2009 (Article in Press). doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2009.05.013

Tayal, V. S. et al. The Effect of Soft-tissue Ultrasound on the Management of Cellulitis in the Emergency Department. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2006; 13:384–388

POCUS Soft Tissue Lecture
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children

POCUS Soft Tissue - Collection of Images
- Jason Fischer, The Hospital for Sick Children


Baud, C. et al. Spiral twist of the spermatic cord: a reliable sign of testicular torsion. Pediatr Radiol (1998) 28: 950-954.

Blaivas, M. and Brannam, L. Testicular ultrasound. Emerg Med Clin N Am 22 (2004) 723–748 doi:10.1016/j.emc.2004.04.002

Coley, B. D. The Acute Pediatric Scrotum. Ultrasound Clin 1 (2006) 485–496. doi:10.1016/j.cult.2006.05.002

Lam, D. L. and Kuo, M. C. Testicular Microlithiasis: Our Experience of 10 Years. J Ultrasound Med 2007; 26:867–873

Micallef, M. et al. Ultrasound features of blunt testicular injury. Injury, Int. J. Care Injured 32 (2001) 23–26

Smith, R. J. and Horrow, M. M. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Acute Urinary Tract and Male Genitourinary Pathology. Ultrasound Clin 6 (2011) 195–213 doi:10.1016/j.cult.2011.03.007

Yin, S. and Trainor J. L. Diagnosis and Management of Testicular Torsion, Torsion of the Appendix Testis, and Epididymitis. Clin Ped Emerg Med 10:38-44. doi:10.1016/j.cpem.2009.01.010